A Supreme – and Dangerous – Human Gift

Once upon a time…

Once upon a time, there was a young boy called Jean-François who was very quiet and studious. Oddly enough, although he loved books, he was not content with reading only his own language.

He wanted to read languages that he could not understand.

In fact, the languages that almost no one could understand interested him more than anything else. The only people who knew these languages were scholars in universities who had spent their lives in the study of ancient texts and musty scrolls. 

Imagine learning a language that no one can speak, then using it to write your journal – and later, to unlock an ancient mystery. That was the achievement of Jean-François Champollion.


Jean-François learned Persian and Sanskrit, along with many other ancient tongues. He also began work on a dictionary and grammar of the Coptic language and used this language to write his journal.

At the time, he had no idea that this language would allow him to unlock an ancient mystery, a written script that people hadn’t been able to read for more than 1500 years. Through his work, scholars can now read hieroglyphics, the written language of the ancient Egyptians.

There is of course a moral to this story. You may think something you’re learning now is just for fun, or perhaps that you are learning it just because your teacher wants to be a slave-driver.

Nevertheless, put your new knowledge on the back-burner of your mind and let it gently simmer. One day, in a decade or two, it might help you to find a job, learn a related skill, develop a product or medicine, write a book or change the world. Even if this knowledge is never employed for a precise and discernible purpose, it will become part of the creative and versatile human being that you already are and will continue to become.


A story within a story:

Euclid was an ancient Greek whose mathematical textbooks were used until the 19th century and whose work is still the basis of related study today. He was teaching a young man geometry when his student, after learning the first theorem, unwisely asked: “What shall I get by learning these things?” Euclid called his slave and said: “Give this young man a few coins, since he must get something from what he learns”.

Perhaps this is what Euclid meant:

When you learn something, you shouldn’t worry what it gives you. Leave that to the “grand Perhaps”, in Robert Browning’s words.  

Kind regards,

Ms Green

 

The Rosetta Stone, encased in glass in the British Museum
With the help of this stone and the ancient tongues he had learned as a child, Jean-Francois Champollion unlocked a 1500-year-old mystery. It is because of him that we know so much about the ancient Egyptians.

The Power of the Written Word

The power of the written word is immense. With our ability to write, we can compose a love poem, pass laws that bring justice to thousands (or deny it), pen moving lyrics for a song, tap out a tweet, write a comment online or correspond with a loved one far away. 

Human talents such as writing can help us to soar above the tiresome details of everyday life, but they can also be employed for destructive purposes. For instance, you could write lies and slander and so use the written word to destroy reputations. If you were a dictator or a tyrant, you could issue orders that might destroy the lives of the people you were oppressing. You could use writing to enslave others. You could even write a death sentence.

All the same, can you imagine how many aspects of human life would be different, how impoverished life would be, without this simple, supreme gift of human expression? 

You see, once you can write down a language, you can preserve ideas beyond your own lifetime and send them across the world.

You can give orders, compile books of quotations, remember speeches and create literature. Your ideas can travel through time and space. They are no longer dependent upon your physical presence.

Writing makes us all time travellers. 

Writing in Ancient Egypt


The ancient Egyptians used writing to administer their complex hierarchical society, to give orders, to tot up taxes, to write the spells that would protect the dead in the afterlife and to describe their lives. Their tombs were covered with the beautiful, pictorial symbols we call hieroglyphics.

Who would have thought that learning langauges no one could speak would one day open up the study of a fascinating ancient civilisation?

Who would have thought that learning languages no one could speak would one day open up the study of a fascinating ancient civilisation?

The knowledge of how to read ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, however,  was lost for more than 1500 years, until Jean-François Champollion figured out how to decipher these beautiful and mysterious symbols. As a boy he used to write his journal in Coptic, the language used by the early Christian Church in Egypt, but long since dead.

A language is considered dead when no living child speaks it as his mother tongue. No living child had spoken Coptic for over 1500 years, but it turned out to be the one written language that could provide clues to the sounds of ancient Egyptian speech.


Never suspecting that Coptic might supply the vital link to understanding hieroglyphics, Champollion learned it as a teenager, along with several other dead languages. It was knowledge that he placed on the back-burner of his mind. One day that knowledge would burst into flame. One day it would illuminate the study of ancient Egypt.

TASKS

As you read the links below, look for or think of answers to these questions (and write or type brief notes):

The cartouche of Tutankhamen (Wikimedia Commons)

a Write your name in hieroglyphics and write 3 dot points about the characteristics of this ancient script.

b What is a cartouche? How did this symbol help in the decipherment of hieroglyphics?

c Champollion wrote that “phonic” symbols were the basis of hieroglyphics. What does this mean?

d Write a comment: How can writing be used for positive, life-affirming purposes? Conversely, how can it be employed to hurt, to harm or to oppress other human beings?


1 Discover the basic details of hieroglyphics at these links:

Egyptian Hieroglyphic Alphabet

http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/hieroglyphs.html

2 Learn how to write your name in hieroglyphics at this link:

http://www.guardians.net/egypt/hieroglyphs/hiero-translator.htm

3 Read the whole fascinating story behind the decipherment of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics at this link:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/decipherment_01.shtml

Rosetta Stone in BM, our photo

A photo of the Rosetta Stone that I took back in 1987, before it was encased in glass

Writing poems – and death sentences…

Hi, 7B!

If you think about it, the power of the written word is immense. You can go on facebook (I hope not too often). You can email a friend a recipe. You can send someone a text. Can you imagine how many aspects of human life would be different, how impoverished life would be, without this simple, supreme gift of human expression?

Once you can write down a language, you can preserve ideas beyond your own lifetime and send them across the world. You can give orders, write love poems (though my husband never does), create books of quotations, remember speeches and create literature.

Humph, there is another side to this topic. You can also write death sentences and lies. Sometimes I think there’s a negative aspect to every human achievement.

As evidence of how writing can be used to impose your will on others, if I couldn’t write this post, you wouldn’t have to do any work. In fact, if it weren’t for writing, you might not need to go to school at all. But of course there would be many things you would miss out on too. Can you think of what you would miss most?

Hieroglyphics_A_as_in_water pd clipartThe ancient Egyptians used writing to administer their complex hierarchical society, to give orders, to tot up taxes, to write the spells that would protect the dead in the afterlife and to describe their lives. Their tombs were covered with the beautiful, pictorial symbols we call hieroglyphics.

Who would have thought that learning langauges no one could speak would one day open up the study of a fascinating ancient civilisation?

Who would have thought that learning langauges no one could speak would one day open up the study of a fascinating ancient civilisation?

The knowledge of how to read ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics was lost for more than 1500 years, until Jean-Francois Champollion figured out how to decipher them. As a boy he used to write his journal in Coptic, the language used by the early Christian Church in Egypt, but long since dead.

A language is considered dead when no living child speaks it as his mother tongue. No living child had spoken Coptic for over 1500 years, but it turned out to be the one written language that could provide clues to the sounds of ancient Egyptian speech.

fire_ball wpclipartcom pdNever suspecting that Coptic might supply the vital link to understanding hieroglyphics, Champollion learned it as a teenager, along with several other dead languages. It was knowledge that he placed on the back-burner of his mind. One day that knowledge would burst into flame. One day it would illuminate the study of ancient Egypt.

To discover the basic details of hieroglyphics, go to this link:

http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/egypt/writing.htm

This link could also be helpful:

http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/literature/hieroglyphs.htm

To learn how to write your name in hieroglyphics, visit this website:

http://www.guardians.net/egypt/hieroglyphs/hiero-translator.htm

In order to read the fascinating story behind the decipherment of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, go to this link:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/decipherment_01.shtml

As you read, look for answers to these questions (and write or type brief notes):

♦What was the Rosetta Stone and why was it a key to understanding hieroglyphics?Rosetta Stone in BM, our photoThe Rosetta Stone in the British Museum

♦How did the recognition of the cartouche help with the process of decipherment?

♦Champollion eventually wrote that the “soul of hieroglyphics” was phonics. What did he mean?

******************************************************************************

thoughtThere is of course a moral to this story. (There’s a moral to all my stories.) You may think something you’re learning now is just for fun, or perhaps that you are learning it just because your teacher wants to be a slave-driver. Well, that last bit might be true! But put this new knowledge on the backburner and let it gently simmer. One day in a decade or two it might help you to find a job, learn a new and wonderful skill, make another person happy, or change the world.

Kind regards,

Ms Green

A special talent that led to great things

WORK FOR MONDAY 28 MARCH 2011

Dear 7X,

I hope you’ll forgive me for leaving you to go on the Year 8 Camp. Three whole days without your form and history teacher! How will you survive?

ros

History teacher and deserter

basic_tree wpclipartcom

I know you’re devastated, but I’ll do my best to communicate with you from the Toolangi forest. They even have the internet there. There’s a hotspot inside a hollow tree. Each person on camp has to take turns…

Actually, the question of communication is the topic of today’s lesson and this post. You see, once you can write down a language, you can preserve ideas beyond your own lifetime and send them across the world. You can give orders, write love poems (though my husband never does), create books of quotations, remember speeches and create literature. You can also write death sentences and lies,  just to point out the negative side. Someone once said that when people began to write, this skill facilitated “the enslavement of mankind”.

As evidence of how writing can be used to impose your will on others, if I couldn’t write this post, you wouldn’t have to do any work. In fact, if it weren’t for writing, you might not need to go to school at all. But of course there would be many things you would miss out on too.

Hieroglyphics_A_as_in_water pd clipartThe ancient Egyptians used writing to administer their complex hierarchical society, to give orders, to tot up taxes, to write the spells that would protect the dead in the afterlife and to describe their lives. Their tombs were covered with the beautiful, pictorial symbols we call hieroglyphics.

Who would have thought that learning langauges no one could speak would one day open up the study of a fascinating ancient civilisation?

Who would have thought that learning langauges no one could speak would one day open up the study of a fascinating ancient civilisation?

The knowledge of how to read ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics was lost for more than 1500 years, until Jean-Francois Champollion figured out how to decipher them. As a boy he used to write his journal in Coptic, the language used by the early Christian Church in Egypt, but long since dead.

A language is considered dead when no living child speaks it as his mother tongue. No living child had spoken Coptic for over 1500 years, but it turned out to be the one written language that could provide clues to the sounds of ancient Egyptian speech.

fire_ball wpclipartcom pdNever suspecting that Coptic might supply the vital link to understanding hieroglyphics, Champollion learned it as a teenager, along with several other dead languages. It was knowledge that he placed on the back-burner of his mind. One day that knowledge would burst into flame. One day it would illuminate the study of ancient Egypt.

In order to read the fascinating story behind the decipherment of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, go to this link:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/decipherment_01.shtml

As you read, look for answers to these questions (and write or type brief notes that can later be added to your assignment):

♦There was a false hypothesis that hampered many scholars as they tried to decipher hieroglyphs. What was it?

♦What was the Rosetta Stone and why was it a key to understanding hieroglyphics?Rosetta Stone in BM, our photoThe Rosetta Stone in the British Museum

♦How did the recognition of the cartouche help with the process of decipherment?

♦When and how did Champollion finally work out that the hypothesis was wrong and that the “soul of hieroglyphics”, as he later wrote, was phonics?

******************************************************************************

thoughtThere is of course a moral to this story. (There’s a moral to all my stories.) You may think something you’re learning now is nothing but whimsy on your part or a cruel imposition by your teachers. Put it on the backburner and let it gently simmer. One day in a decade or two it might help you to find a job, learn a new and wonderful skill, make another person happy, or change the world.

Kind regards,

Ms Green

The flow of history: the gift of the Nile

…there is no country that possesses so many wonders…

Herodotus

This picture of modern Egypt with its ancient wonders was kindly provided by Mrs McQueen in the library. She has more exciting holidays than I do, though I must admit, I have climbed those ancient stones myself. There's a photo below, in which I look uncomfortably hot. That was back in 1987.

This picture of modern Egypt with its ancient wonders was kindly provided by Mrs McQueen in the library. She has more exciting holidays than I do, though I must admit, I have climbed those ancient stones myself. There's a photo below, in which I look uncomfortably hot. That was taken back in 1987. Since then I've become cool...

Egypt has a great fascination for historians. In fact, the study of ancient Egypt has its own “-ology”. In today’s class you will be doing some reading and activities to induct you into the world of the Egyptologist. Then, you’ll be concocting an adventure in ancient Egypt, in the role of a small impulsive alien, whose name is Emit Repoons. He gave my blog its name and there’s an explanation of his identity on this page.

But back to Egypt. The study of this long-lived and intriguing civilisation has been around for a long time. Herodotus, the man who has been dubbed the “father of history” by some, visited ancient Egypt in the mid 5th century BC; by that time, the civilisation had already been in existence for thousands of years. Nevertheless, the knowledge of how to read hieroglyphs was lost a few hundred years later, and for at least one and a half thousand years no one was able to decipher all those beautiful pictorial symbols. Then a man called Jean-Francois Champollion broke the code. His stroke of genius meant that thousands of primary sources could suddenly be read. It was a huge boost for Egyptology and the study of history.

Remember, I'm a god. Even though I suffer from abscesses on my teeth and other mortal problems.

Remember, I'm a god - even though I suffer from abscesses on my teeth and other mortal problems.

I’m saving Champollion’s story, however, for another day. Today is strictly introductory. But keep in mind that in the 1800s and early 1900s there were huge numbers of historians and archaeologists trying to get the story of ancient Egypt down pat. Many were from England, which explains why many great Egyptian treasures may be seen in London in the British Museum, along with some Greek marbles. (There’s been great controversy over whether the British should give the Elgin marbles back – and countless other treasures of antiquity.)

One of the reasons Herodotus was interested in Egypt was that he found the culture of the Egyptians strange as well as fascinating. You may feel the same as you wander the desert sands, sail across the Nile and show your embalming skills on our class mummy. I hope so.

♦Read up on the process of mummification HERE, then

Play the Mummy Maker Game at the BBC website by clicking here

Read about the power of the Pharaohs here

View the treasures of Tutankhamen here

Convert your name to hieroglyphs here

Ros sitting on the Great Pyramid, 1987 Ros in Egypt 1987

↑I went to Egypt in 1987. It was hot, fascinating and hot!

Resources for Studying Ancient Egypt

The School Library has now bought the World Book Online. This is a brilliant resource, which you can even access from outside through the intranet or this blog. You will need the username (bhhs) and password (worldbook) to use it, however. Ask Ms Green or Mrs McQueen to give it to you so that you can use the link below:

Screen shot 2010-08-17 at 4.00.04 PM

Here are some more websites to whet your curiosity about this ancient civilisation:

♥Click on these links to find out more about the Nile River:

http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/river-nile-facts.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/nile_01.shtml (for serious readers only!)

♥Click on these links to discover details of the lives of peasant farmers:

http://www.egyptologyonline.com/Work%20&%20Trade.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials/1624_story_of_africa/page89.shtml (This site explains that it was peasant farmers rather than slaves who were responsible for the great monuments of ancient Egypt.)

♥The British Museum provides a timeline of ancient Egyptian history at this link:

http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/time/explore/main.html

♥For a detailed account of how the ancient Egyptians made beer and bread, go to:

http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/breadmaking.htm

♥To read about Hatshepsut, a rare woman pharaoh, go to:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/hatshepsut_01.shtml