Welcome to History, 7X!

Dear 7X,

I have heard all about you already from at least two of your other teachers, Mr Jäckisch and Mrs Andrews. So I know that you are curious, perceptive, witty and delightful. Do you mind living up to such high praise? No pressure!

As I grow inexorably older (no faster than you are, but sometimes it seems that way), I notice that, even in the 30 years since I gained my teaching qualification, the story of history has changed quite significantly. Historians keep digging (literally and figuratively) and scientists have found entirely new ways to unwrap the enigmas of history.

As a consequence, while I once used to discuss the question of whether the Neanderthals were related to Homo sapiens with my students in an uncertain, speculative way, I can now state, more or less categorically, that some of our genes come from that mysterious group of people who hunted and gathered, just as we did, but did not survive to see the modern world that we have made. You can find more on this topic at this post.

The internet has also changed how I teach, how my students learn and the sheer breadth of material available to us all. For instance, it was only after the internet became available that I discovered how many women artists in the Renaissance were never mentioned in my old history books. Here is an example.

Since I have also changed in the last 30 years, I perceive history differently as well. One reason is that I have taught myself two foreign languages in the past 8 years. When you read history in another language, you discover that English writers have sometimes left out vital details. Every people has its own story and its own way of telling it.

Unravelling the tangled threads of history…

In short, history is a fluid, ongoing mystery, a continuous endeavour to tease out the truth from all the stories, the lies, the propaganda and the partial sources at our disposal. I hope that you will enjoy the process of unravelling the tangled threads of the human story and that you will contribute your own youthful exuberance, wisdom and knowledge to the process.

Kind regards from

Ms Green

Four Periods in History | Introductory Handout

Essential Terms for Describing Time:

• Prehistory

The time before the first writing appeared, in the period between 3500 and 3100 BC. Once people could write records, they could write history. That’s when we say that “history” began, though the human story stretches much further back into the mists of time.

• BP – Before the Present

This is frequently used by scientists who deal with huge numbers of years and want to provide a rounded indication of how long ago something happened. 

• BC – Before Christ

The time before the birth of Christ, an expression used in Christian societies

• BCE – Before the Common Era

The time before the birth of Christ, without Christ’s name being mentioned; employed in non-Christian societies and increasingly in Christian societies when an objective style of describing history is desired; equivalent in meaning to BC

• AD – Anno Domini, Latin for “Year of our Lord”

The years that have elapsed since the birth of Christ, an expression used in Christian societies 

• CE – Common Era

The years that have elapsed since the birth of Christ, without Christ’s name being mentioned; employed in non-Christian societies and increasingly in Christian societies when an objective style of describing history is desired; equivalent in meaning to AD


And last of all, a Jumble Kahoot: 

Panorama of Four Periods of the Human Story: Prehistoric, Ancient, Medieval and Modern Periods
Class Mode | Preview Mode | Create an Account

Print Friendly

The Mandate of Heaven

Dear 7Y,

Imagine that you could invoke a powerful spiritual being to justify your position, your actions and your power. Every time someone questioned your actions or doubted your motives, you could fall back on your entitlements as the chosen one of this powerful being, who had theoretically ordained you and anointed you as the person in charge. If your underlings believed in the existence of this being, your position would be impregnable.

Or would it?

There’s usually a downside to this kind of religious propaganda, even though it has been employed by many monarchs and emperors in history to underpin their supposedly unassailable authority. If things started to go wrong, if the crops failed or there was a flood or natural disaster, the very argument that you once used to justify your domination might also be used to dispute its validity. Perhaps that divine being is questioning your so-called birthright. Perhaps you don’t deserve that birthright any more.

For centuries, the “Mandate of Heaven” was the basis of the Chinese emperors’ overwhelming power, yet this belief in a divine blessing could be hijacked by opponents as proof of their unworthiness too. For this reason, the dynasties of China could last for centuries and seem invulnerable, only to be challenged, to fall and to be replaced. The concept of the “Mandate of Heaven” could be conveniently used to explain both their lasting power and their fall from grace.

Yet another of those odd little internal contradictions in human history…

Kind regards from Ms Green (no relationship to John and Hank)

♦ John Green’s take on the Mandate of Heaven and on Chinese history in general:

♦ Other links about the Mandate of Heaven

Boundless • Mr Donn’s simpler version

♦ Simple interactive quiz on this topic 

♦ Encounter a Chinese dynasty at Boundless 

  • After reading your text on the ancient dynasties of China, select one that interests you in particular and create a dossier on its origins, rise to power, cultural and technological achievements and legacy.
  • Then construct a little quiz for your fellow students at this link. Use a variety of question types, including multiple choice, chronological order and matching. You will need to create an account in order to do this, using your school email account. If you would prefer, you can make a set of Tiny Cards on your chosen dynasty.
Print Friendly

Three Philosophies to Live By




Dear 7Y,

The people of ancient China were inventive both physically and mentally. As you already know, they invented paper, gunpowder, the compass and movable printing. They began to spin silk around 6000 years ago.

Today, however, you will be learning about their inventive ideas, their ways of thinking and their philosophies of life.




Set out your notes in any way that seems appropriate to you. Here are some options:

  • Create a set of Tiny Cards through Duolingo, titled “Chinese Philosophies of Life” or something similar. You may decide to make one set for each of the philosophies: Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism.
  • Here is my starter set for Taoism to gain an overview of both the philosophy and the card-making concept:
Tiny Cards Set – Taoism
  • Present your work on a double page of your workbook, including headings, drawings and fact boxes.
  • Create a PowerPoint or an Infographic through a site like Piktochart – or use your own software.

Include dot points, sentences, symbols and pictures to make your work visually attractive and engaging and to ensure that you rework and reconstruct what you read.

At the same time, ensure that you include answers to the questions I have typed below each philosophy or philosopher.

Eventually I shall ask you to express your own opinions about each philosophy. That’s why, as you read about each one, I would like you to ask yourselves:

“What do I believe? Is this what I think? How is it similar to or different from my own philosophy of life? Could I adopt this as something to believe in – or not?”

You might even react like this:

“I’ve never thought about that before, but now that I’ve read about it, it makes sense.” 

Ultimately you will be thinking about your own philosophy of life, which might well borrow elements from all three of the philosophies below.


Philosophy for Kids
United Religions Initiative – Children 


  • What does the word “Tao” mean?
  • Who is thought to be the founder of this philosophy?
  • What do Taoists believe?
  • Draw a picture of Taoism’s famous symbol. What Taoist ideas does it express and represent?



 Kids’ World – Buddha

 OUP Blog – 10 Facts about Buddhism

  • Use symbols and pictures to tell the story of Siddhartha Gautama and his path to enlightenment.
  • Then present the three universal truths and the four noble truths that he identified during his deep meditation period. Use a symbol or picture to illustrate or represent each one.


 Philosophy Slam

Ancient History Encyclopedia

  • Select 2 quotations from Confucian teachings, write them down and then explain them in your own words.
  • Give an example of how each quotation might apply either to you or to the modern world.
  • List and explain the main ideas in the moral code of Confucius. Use a symbol or simple picture for each one.
  • If you are working online, you can find copyright free symbols and pictures at these three sites:


Last Request:

Type out the most fundmental point of your own personal philosophy of life and put it into a comment for others in the class to read. For example, this is mine: 

Kindness towards others is a fundamental principle that my mother taught me. I believe that mercy is more important than justice and forgiveness more healing than retribution. I would prefer to be a victim of injustice than a person who acts unjustly.

Kind regards and happy philosophising,

Ms Green

Print Friendly

Yet another tyrant leaves his mark…

Introductory Kahoot:

Class Mode | Preview Mode

Dear 7Y,

Terracotta Soldiers • Intended as guardians for Qin Shi Huang’s Tomb •

It seems that in every age and almost every land, at least since we’ve been living in so-called civilisations and not roaming as hunter-gatherers, some people have developed a desire for power that makes them forget their humanity.

This drive to seize absolute control of others’ lives leads power-hungry people to commit horrific and heartless acts of cruelty. They oppress their own people and usually the peoples that they conquer. The pain such tyrants inflict is never forgotten. 

The famous historian, Sima Qian, said of Qin Shi Huang, the tyrant who united China and in the process terrorised its people:

Qin is a man of scant mercy who has the heart of a wolf.

If the Qin should ever get his way with the world, then the whole world will end up his prisoner.


Your task today is to find out about the life and actions of Qin Shi Huang. Which actions of his would you characterise as tyrannical? In other words, which actions were inhumane, oppressive, cruel and merciless? Use the links below or others.

♥ Set out your written or typed notes in a format that allows four subheadings like or similar to those below. You may choose to copy this table into a Word document if you find it useful for corralling your thoughts.

Kind regards, Ms Green

Qin Shi Huang

Examples of Tyrannical Acts




The Confucian Purge




Warring States and Unification




Political and Cultural Achievements





Asian History.com  BBC Time Magazine Social Studies for Kids

Print Friendly

Ancient Rome and the Struggle with Tyranny

All tyranny needs to gain a foothold is for people of good conscience to remain silent.
Edmund Burke

Sometimes, when I’m in the mood for summing up history in one sentence (which no one should ever try to do), I come out with wild, unsubstantiated statements like this: “History is the story of how tyrants constantly try to seize power and of how the rest of us, conversely, dream up ways of stopping them.”

Hmm, I realise that there are a few more nuances to history than that comment suggests, but the issue of tyranny is certainly a recurrent theme. Here is a summary of how you answered the first key question on this topic:

How do tyrants seize power in the first place?

Your answers:

• Tyrants intimidate the weak.

• They eliminate potential threats by silencing vocal people or sending them into exile, through mass imprisonments, by establishing a reign of terror and by controlling the press.

• Since they often make minuscule changes that seem minor at first and that many citizens barely notice or are too afraid to criticise, they gradually modify the rules to their own advantage.

• They promise what they cannot deliver in reality by convincing people that they can solve problems with simple solutions and empty words.

A List of Words for Describing the Characteristics and  Actions of Tyrants

Verbs: intimidate, threaten, instil fear, run fraudulent elections, accuse, force confessions, deport, massacre, brainwash, persecute, torture, banish, exile, assassinate, execute, imprison, oppress, suppress, subjugate, repress, murder, set up labour camps or death camps, abolish the rule of law, monopolise the press, conceal the truth…

Nouns: cruelty, threat, malice, fear, despotism, dictatorship, autocracy, corruption, ambition, military coup, coup d’état (takeover of the state), absolute power 

Adjectives: oppressive, power-hungry, ambitious, callous, heartless, malicious, self-serving, brutal, ruthless, merciless, inhumane, dictatorial, despotic, tyrannical, corrupt

Your Task

  • Choose one of the leaders or emperors below and write a short biography of his life and rule. Use only your own phrasing and avoid wholesale copying and pasting.
  • Then make a judgement: Which of his actions were tyrannical? To what extent would you describe him as a tyrant?
  • What evaluation would you make of him as a leader or ruler?
  • Was he fair and reasonable or cruel and ruthless – or somewhere in between?

Julius Caesar – last Leader of the Roman Republic

PBSBBC Website | History.com | Encyclopedia.com

Augustus – first Emperor

PBS | BBC Website | History.comEncylopedia.com 


PBS | BBC Website | Ancient History Encyclopedia


PBS | BBC Website | Encyclopedia.com


PBS | BBC Website | History.comAncient History Encyclopedia


PBS | BBC Website | Ancient History Encyclopedia

Create your own pictograph about tyranny or slavery by creating an account at Piktochart.

Print Friendly

All Roads Lead to Rome

Dear 7Y,

When I think of ancient Rome, my first thoughts tend to be gruesome.

I think of the chariot race from Ben Hur, of Julius Caesar being stabbed twenty-three times in the Senate (according to this source), of the crucifixions of the slave rebels on the Appian Way and of gladiatorial contests during which the crowds displayed a horrifying blood-lust… 

But surely it’s not all blood and gore! Am I just spreading a stereotype with the help of a few old Hollywood movies?

Well, not entirely. Even the relatively restrained BBC Website refers to the Romans as “ingenious but brutal”.

I think you have to remember both of these aspects of the ancient Romans as you learn about them. Could one employ these two adjectives to summarise the history of the human race? What do you think?

Even though the Romans were in many ways warlike and vicious, they imposed an enforced peace upon their massive Empire. This is sometimes referred to as the “Pax Romana”, which is in itself a kind of paradox, an internal contradiction, for despite the Romans’ lust for conquest and their enslavement of many conquered people, many states were able to enjoy relative peace and stability under Roman control.

This means that there were great and less bloody accomplishments as well as the blood sports, corruption, poisonings and cruelty. Indeed, the legacies of ancient Rome are still dotted over their former territories, in the shape of aqueducts, ancient roads, architecture and amphitheatres.

Even the letters I am using to type this post hail from the Latin script, the most widely used form of writing in the world today. Latin may be a dead language, but it evolved into the Romance languages, such as French, Italian and Spanish, and it lives on in countless words and expressions in other languages, including English.

So in many respects, the Romans are still among us. Like the genes of the Neanderthals.

Goodness, history is getting almost spooky.

Regards from Ms Green

On the Road to Rome:

  • Look closely at this map of the ancient Roman Empire. Can you identify the names of ancient lands under the control of the Romans and match them with their modern names?
  • Watch this video animation of how Rome might have looked around the year AD 320.

Print Friendly

A Supreme – and Dangerous – Human Gift

Once upon a time…

Once upon a time, there was a young boy called Jean-François who was very quiet and studious. Oddly enough, although he loved books, he was not content with reading only his own language.

He wanted to read languages that he could not understand.

In fact, the languages that almost no one could understand interested him more than anything else. The only people who knew these languages were scholars in universities who had spent their lives in the study of ancient texts and musty scrolls. 

Imagine learning a language that no one can speak, then using it to write your journal – and later, to unlock an ancient mystery. That was the achievement of Jean-François Champollion.

Jean-François learned Persian and Sanskrit, along with many other ancient tongues. He also began work on a dictionary and grammar of the Coptic language and used this language to write his journal.

At the time, he had no idea that this language would allow him to unlock an ancient mystery, a written script that people hadn’t been able to read for more than 1500 years. Through his work, scholars can now read hieroglyphics, the written language of the ancient Egyptians.

There is of course a moral to this story. You may think something you’re learning now is just for fun, or perhaps that you are learning it just because your teacher wants to be a slave-driver.

Nevertheless, put your new knowledge on the back-burner of your mind and let it gently simmer. One day, in a decade or two, it might help you to find a job, learn a related skill, develop a product or medicine, write a book or change the world. Even if this knowledge is never employed for a precise and discernible purpose, it will become part of the creative and versatile human being that you already are and will continue to become.

A story within a story:

Euclid was an ancient Greek whose mathematical textbooks were used until the 19th century and whose work is still the basis of related study today. He was teaching a young man geometry when his student, after learning the first theorem, unwisely asked: “What shall I get by learning these things?” Euclid called his slave and said: “Give this young man a few coins, since he must get something from what he learns”.

Perhaps this is what Euclid meant:

When you learn something, you shouldn’t worry what it gives you. Leave that to the “grand Perhaps”, in Robert Browning’s words.  

Kind regards,

Ms Green


The Rosetta Stone, encased in glass in the British Museum
With the help of this stone and the ancient tongues he had learned as a child, Jean-Francois Champollion unlocked a 1500-year-old mystery. It is because of him that we know so much about the ancient Egyptians.

The Power of the Written Word

The power of the written word is immense. With our ability to write, we can compose a love poem, pass laws that bring justice to thousands (or deny it), pen moving lyrics for a song, tap out a tweet, write a comment online or correspond with a loved one far away. 

Human talents such as writing can help us to soar above the tiresome details of everyday life, but they can also be employed for destructive purposes. For instance, you could write lies and slander and so use the written word to destroy reputations. If you were a dictator or a tyrant, you could issue orders that might destroy the lives of the people you were oppressing. You could use writing to enslave others. You could even write a death sentence.

All the same, can you imagine how many aspects of human life would be different, how impoverished life would be, without this simple, supreme gift of human expression? 

You see, once you can write down a language, you can preserve ideas beyond your own lifetime and send them across the world.

You can give orders, compile books of quotations, remember speeches and create literature. Your ideas can travel through time and space. They are no longer dependent upon your physical presence.

Writing makes us all time travellers. 

Writing in Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians used writing to administer their complex hierarchical society, to give orders, to tot up taxes, to write the spells that would protect the dead in the afterlife and to describe their lives. Their tombs were covered with the beautiful, pictorial symbols we call hieroglyphics.

Who would have thought that learning langauges no one could speak would one day open up the study of a fascinating ancient civilisation?
Who would have thought that learning languages no one could speak would one day open up the study of a fascinating ancient civilisation?

The knowledge of how to read ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, however,  was lost for more than 1500 years, until Jean-François Champollion figured out how to decipher these beautiful and mysterious symbols. As a boy he used to write his journal in Coptic, the language used by the early Christian Church in Egypt, but long since dead.

A language is considered dead when no living child speaks it as his mother tongue. No living child had spoken Coptic for over 1500 years, but it turned out to be the one written language that could provide clues to the sounds of ancient Egyptian speech.

Never suspecting that Coptic might supply the vital link to understanding hieroglyphics, Champollion learned it as a teenager, along with several other dead languages. It was knowledge that he placed on the back-burner of his mind. One day that knowledge would burst into flame. One day it would illuminate the study of ancient Egypt.


As you read the links below, look for or think of answers to these questions (and write or type brief notes):

The cartouche of Tutankhamen (Wikimedia Commons)

a Write your name in hieroglyphics and write 3 dot points about the characteristics of this ancient script.

b What is a cartouche? How did this symbol help in the decipherment of hieroglyphics?

c Champollion wrote that “phonic” symbols were the basis of hieroglyphics. What does this mean?

d Write a comment: How can writing be used for positive, life-affirming purposes? Conversely, how can it be employed to hurt, to harm or to oppress other human beings?

1 Discover the basic details of hieroglyphics at these links:

Egyptian Hieroglyphic Alphabet


2 Learn how to write your name in hieroglyphics at this link:


3 Read the whole fascinating story behind the decipherment of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics at this link:


Rosetta Stone in BM, our photo
A photo of the Rosetta Stone that I took back in 1987, before it was encased in glass
Print Friendly

You begged me for Kahoots… I weakly surrendered.


Kahoots have become a craze, like yo-yos and tamagotchis. One of my senior students told me once that Kahoots represented the “pinnacle” of his educational experience. After that, I felt obliged to continue making them. Who am I to keep anyone from reaching any kind of pinnacle?

Regular Kahoot: Ancient Rome: Play alone | Play with others | Create an account

Jumble Kahoot: The Chronology of History: Play alone | Play with others | Create an account

Another Jumble Kahoot: A Jumbled Chronology of History: Play alone | Play with others | Create an account

Regular Kahoot: History is philosophy teaching through examples: Play alone | Play with others | Create an account

Regular Kahoot: Introduction to Ancient Egypt – and Other History Topics: Play alone | Play with others | Create an account

Plus: A Fascinating Overview of Time…

I am contemplating turning this into a Kahoot — when I find the time.

Print Friendly

From the Stone Age to Ancient Egypt…

Dear 7Y,

Today you can tackle some revision on the Stone Age and then begin an intellectual journey along the Nile River in order to observe the civilization of the ancient Egyptians. I hope you enjoy the trip.

Kind regards, Ms Green

1 The Natufians

The “Natufians” were hunter-gatherers whose descendants eventually became the first farmers and herders in the Fertile Crescent. Ultimately a great civilisation developed in that region. The people of that civilisation were called the Sumerians and they are generally credited with inventing the wheel (some question this assumption) and developing the first writing (this is widely accepted). These were remarkable achievements for people with hardly any wood, whose best material for a writing surface and for building houses was mud.

First though, a little quiz on the Stone Age and the Natufians, partially based on that film, “Stories from the Stone Age”:

Complete this quiz under a new tab on the full screen

Dagon Museum, Mortars from Natufian Culture, Grinding stones from Neolithic pre-pottery phase
This picture shows some of the grinding implements used by the Natufians.
Hanay [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

2 Ancient Egypt – Essential Vocabulary

Below there is also a little Quizlet on ancient Egypt, which will help you to learn many of the words connected with this topic. As an added incentive, you can play the Gravity game, but only after cycling through the digital flashcards at least once.

3 The ancient Egyptians – an Introduction

Photo kindly provided by Mrs McQueen

The ancient Egyptians built the Great Pyramid of Giza without the wheel. In addition, they developed their own system of writing, probably influenced by the Sumerians. The ancient Egyptians often get the credit for domesticating cats, but some believe that this occurred much earlier in Cyprus. It is undeniable, however, that Egyptians loved cats. They also embalmed bodies with great skill and lived successfully in a land that, except for a thin fertile strip near its river, was basically desert.

It was an improbable place for the development of such a major and successful civilization, made possible only by the existence of that river, the Nile, and by the talents of the people. Every year the Nile delivered its fertile silt to the inhabitants of the Nile Valley, its floodwaters sweeping down from the Ethiopian mountains in the south to the plains of the north. Every year the Egyptian peasant farmers used that silt and water to crop their land and grow the food that supported the whole population.

Some of my students think life would have been much easier once farming began. They point out that people would no longer have encountered as much danger from hunting and would have felt more confidence about having food when they needed it.

While these are fair points, farming in ancient Egypt was labour-intensive, to say the least. A peasant farmer was also at the bottom of the social hierarchy. This was no easy life. Hunter-gatherers six or seven thousand years before in a fertile area might well have had more leisure time and fewer people telling them what to do – and no one to tax them as well.

4 Some Introductory Websites and Videos

Find out more about ancient Egypt at these links. This is just a preliminary wander along the Nile River:

Mummy Maker Game at the BBC Website

The importance of the Nile – BBC Website

Questions and answers about the Nile – an easier website

A day in the life of various ancient Egyptians – PBS Website

A fascinating account of archaeological evidence on who actually built the Pyramids – PBS website

A video about an ancient Egyptian’s journey through the underworld:

A video about how the ancient Egyptians made their mummies:

Print Friendly

The Mysteries of History

Dear 7Y,

Congratulations on navigating your way through the first days and weeks at our school.

Sometimes the school buildings seem to me like an old city that grew organically, without any architectural planning and forethought. That’s why they sometimes strike me as a friendly set of rabbit burrows, with little holes and passages leading to unexpected nooks and crannies. If you are well on your way to discovering where everything is, then you should feel proud of your accomplishment. I’m still hoping one day to discover a Room of Requirement…

This blog is for my history students in Year 7 and 8. If you cycle through the posts that I’ve written since 2009, when I started the blog, you will see the kind of work I have set my students over the years.

The first task, below, is one of my favourites, because it deals with a group of people, of hominids, of extinct human beings, who have often been denigrated; yet they represent one of the abiding enigmas of historical enquiry. Over the many years since I began teaching history (I’m becoming an artefact myself), the knowledge about Neanderthals has changed. For instance, most scientists now believe, thanks to the revolution in our understanding of the human genome, that some of our genes do indeed come from Neanderthals. Even 20 years ago, that was still uncertain.

I wish you the very best for your studies at our school and look forward to hearing and reading your comments, which I am sure will be witty, quirky, insightful and enlightening.

Kind regards,

Ms Green

A Mystery from History

Here’s a mystery from history for you to contemplate. How come the Neanderthals died out or became extinct? They had already survived the most life-threatening conditions you could possibly imagine. They were strong and well adapted to the cold. Their brains were larger than any other hominid’s, before them or since. That includes us!

There are many questions that surround the Neanderthals’ existence and their premature departure from this earth. For instance, scientists have been trying for many years to determine whether modern humans could have interbred with Neanderthals. The Max Planck Institute in Germany found evidence of Neanderthal genes in our genome in 2010. Only recently, however, another group of scientists have cast doubt on the theory that Neanderthals could have interbred with Homo sapiens. You can read information on these topics by clicking on the links below.

An artist's rendition of life on earth 60,000 years ago, showing a Neanderthal family on the frozen tundra of northern Europe - provided by Wikipedia Commons (public domain image)
An artist’s rendition of life on earth 60,000 years ago, showing a Neanderthal family on the frozen tundra of northern Europe – provided by Wikipedia Commons (public domain image)

It seems to me that the Neanderthals were tantalisingly similar to us, yet mysteriously different as well:

♦They didn’t farm, but then neither did we at that time in our past. No one farmed until 10,000 years ago. By then the Neanderthals had been gone for over 20,000 years.

♦They didn’t create rock art (at least to the best of our knowledge).

♦Yet they buried their dead and looked after their old and infirm. There is evidence to show that they were already burying their dead 120,000 years ago.

♦You might even assume that they should have been more likely to survive than we were. For instance, they were better adapted than Homo sapiens to a frozen world. They survived thousands of years of Ice Age. Their bones were far stronger than ours. Our bones are finer, more fragile, much more breakable. They would have won a wrestling contest with us easily.

So why did they, around 35000 to 30000 years ago, become extinct?

Words for possibilities
Not to mention: speculation, surmise, belief, point of view, judgement, conjecture and suspicion…

Here’s your chance to plumb the depths of this mystery and go back to the time before Homo sapiens were the only human beings on the planet. Have a look at each link below to view some fascinating speculations about Neanderthals:

Of course, many of these ideas are theory or speculation rather than fact.

After you have read and discussed these sites, write a comment about the Neanderthals. It must be written in correct English. What do you find interesting about them? What information have you gleaned from your reading? What are the factors that might have made the Neanderthals vulnerable to extinction? 

Kind regards,

Ms Green.

In case you lose your “Possibility Words” handout: A Mystery of History – Neanderthals

Print Friendly

Renaissance, Rinascimento, Rebirth

Ms Green as a version of the Mona Lisa…

During the Renaissance, artists were fascinated by people, beauty, anatomy and nature. They created art with quite a new focus: portraits of wealthy people (often clutching books to show their intelligence and education), detailed prints and paintings of plants, animals and landscapes; paintings of buildings with careful attention to the rules of perspective; and even pictures of children playing games. Later, some artists began to show an interest in peasants’ lives, not just the lives of the wealthy. 

It was a time when creativity flourished. In any historical period, however, alongside those who embrace change are those who fear its effects on their belief systems and way of life. The Catholic Church, for example, was deeply suspicious of many Renaissance ideas, did not allow dissection and accused scientists of heresy. For this reason, Copernicus did not publish his theory about a sun-centred universe until late in his life. Galileo was accused of heresy and placed under house arrest for the last few years of his life.

All in all, it was an interesting and dangerous time. Like now!

1 Quizlet

Play the Match game | Play the Gravity game

2 Alternative Monas

A Pinterest board that might inspire you 

My former students’ Mona Lisas 

Live Science website on the Mona Lisa

3 Some Great Minds of the Renaissance:

Film on the Medici family and the birth of the Renaissance in Florence

Print Friendly

An Infographic on the Samurai

infographic Japan

Clipart provided by www.clipartlord.com

Dear 82Y,

Have you ever heard the expression: “Words can’t describe how I feel”? That phrase always strikes me as lazy, because I can’t help thinking: “Describing is exactly what words are for. Don’t just give up, reach into your lexicon and find the words you need!”

I cannot imagine that you would not be so easily defeated by a concept that is difficult to explain. You can dream up strings of synonyms in a few moments and turn them into precise and memorable prose (or even a poem, as Harry showed us last week).

All the same, with the advent of the internet and all the tools and resources that it provides, it is actually relatively easy to describe ideas and experiences, not just with words, but also with a range of graphics, pictures, symbols and numbers. Of course, that was always possible, but now this kind of description has become a kind of digital art form. It is called an infographic.

Designing an infographic requires research, planning and creativity. You need some interesting fonts or lettering, a clear heading and several subheadings, clever and evocative symbols or pictures, information in words and figures, and a dash of flair.

Your task, after some internet roaming, is ultimately to create an infographic to summarise the life, customs, skills and idiosyncrasies of the Samurai. The links I have provided below are fairly straightforward and, I hope, informative and interesting. 

Before you begin with your historical reading, contemplate how you can best design your infographic by admiring the clever examples that I have found over the past few months. You will find links to them below.

In this way you can further develop your skills in summarising material as well as extend your knowledge. You may work in twos or threes for this task.

Kind regards,

Ms Green

Historical Information:

Examples of Infographics:

Print Friendly

Evaluating a historical figure: Charlemagne

Roslyn square avatarDear S2Y,

As a historian and discerning writer, you need to choose precise words.

Here are some imprecise words that one hears every day: “awesome”, “amazing”, “extraordinary”, “wonderful”, “good”, “marvellous”, “terrible”, “bad” – and so on. In speech, such words are easy to use, even though they sometimes fail to convey exact meanings. I’m not saying that you should never use them. Just be sparing with them.

In writing, some of the words below might allow you to express finer shades of meaning and capture the nuances of human experience. That’s what words are for. Choosing an exact word or phrase is a deliberate mental act that will allow you to express yourself with conviction and even formulate ideas in a more rigorous way. Weigh your words as you choose them. In this way you will become a memorable writer, not a pedestrian one.

Positive words for describing the life and legacy of people in history – for describing admirable actions and characteristics  Negative words for describing the life and legacy of people in history – for describing people or actions that you deplore or condemn
influential, determined, resolute, purposeful, tenacious, brave, courageous, astute, quick-witted, insightful, discerning, far-sighted, ingenious, unconventional, visionary, forward-thinking, enlightened, inventive, innovative, industrious unwise, thoughtless, inhumane, ruthless, callous, cowardly, hasty, immoral, misguided, ill-judged, senseless, cruel, ill-considered, foolish, mistaken, dangerous, imprudent, irresponsible


Charlemagne by the German artist, Dürer. This image is in the public domain and has been uploaded from Wikimedia Commons.

For those of you who were present to watch the BBC documentary, “Blood of the Vikings”, you may recall hearing Charlemagne’s name. The commentators mentioned that his military campaigns and slaughters of so-called pagans were possible factors in the Vikings’ increasingly violent raids, which began in the late eighth century. At just that time, Charlemagne was establishing what came to be known as the “Holy Roman Empire”. “Establishing” is such a clean, neat word, but in reality Charlemagne conducted many military campaigns that were far from gentle, orderly and merciful; his “establishment” of his empire entailed a great deal of force and bloodshed. In a sense, the word “establishment” here is rather euphemistic, just like the phrase “surgical bombing” as it was employed during the Iraq War.

While many accounts of Charlemagne present him in a glowing light as the father and founder of European culture, some historians view him as a brutal warlord. Which of these extremes is most clearly supported by the evidence? Can one argue that he somehow combined some elements of both extremes? Which view would you support more?

In reality, of course, all historical characters are likely to have positive and negative sides, although the preponderance of violent, murderous dictators in the twentieth century sometimes makes it difficult to maintain one’s faith in human character…

Your task is to decide what kind of man Charlemagne was and describe him in all his complexity and contradictions. 

Charlemagne set up a significant and powerful empire and was influential in the development of Europe.

Even though Charlemagne is remembered for his contributions to law, justice and education, he sometimes took harsh measures against those who resisted his power. For instance, he forced people to be baptised as Christians and executed thousands of Saxon prisoners in one day.

So on the one hand, Charlemagne encouraged learning and admired scholars. On the other, he was prepared to act viciously to strengthen and consolidate his power.

[wmd-divider style=”knot” spacing=”40″ color=”#002426″ size=”2″ ls-id=”55dec35d93d68″/]

Find out more by reading the websites below. 

♦Then create a word document in which you write a careful, considered paragraph (or two) on the life, character and legacy of Charlemagne. Ensure that you include answers to these questions:

  • What do you admire about him?
  • Which actions, if any, would you criticise? Use the words in the table provided above.
  • Show me your paragraph during our next class, before adding it as a comment to this blog post.
  • You may choose to select, instead of Charlemagne, one of the other people listed on pages 256-8 of your text: Leif Ericson, Suleiman the Magnificent or Galileo Galilei.

I chose Charlemagne for this task because of the complexity of his moral character, but I am willing to concede that each of these other characters is worthy of your mature contemplation.

Here are some recommended websites:

[wmd-toggle tab_background=”#066196″ tab_color=”#fff” content_background=”#2196d1″ content_color=”#fff” border_radius=”4″ ls-id=”55dec48bf250d”][wmd-toggle-tab title=”A particularly critical description and a reconstructed portrait of Charlemagne”]%3Cp%3E%3Cspan%20style%3D%22font-size%3A%2012pt%3B%20color%3A%20%2399ccff%3B%22%3EA%20particularly%20critical%20description%20and%20a%20reconstructed%20portrait%20of%20Charlemagne%3C%2Fspan%3E%3C%2Fp%3E[/wmd-toggle-tab][/wmd-toggle]


An overview of the history underlying Charlemagne’s rise to power, from the Khan Academy:

A brief account of the Carolingian Renaissance, with references to the darker side of Charlemagne’s character (from 8 minutes onwards):

[wmd-buttons style=”stiched” button_color=”#1279b5″ font_color=”#ffffff” size=”2″ border_radius=”4″ position=”center” target=”_self” ls-id=”55de99fdc7f3f”][wmd-buttons-button label=”Kahoot” link=”https://create.kahoot.it/?_ga=1.135484466.2077747923.1437027700#/preview/cd32a504-9e1d-4ec3-835d-020022c68445″/][/wmd-buttons]

The Vikings

Play alone in Preview Mode | Play with others in Class Mode

To play alone, make an account here

To play with others, teachers can click on Class Mode, while students can enter the game by inputting the game pin at kahoot.it.




Print Friendly

The Fall of Western Rome


Dear S2Y,

As you may recall from our last few classes, teasing out the interwoven causes, variables and factors that contributed to an important historical event is a tricky business. There is rarely a single cause that leads inexorably to a single effect. The fall of the western part of the ancient Roman Empire is a case in point. Many factors contributed to the Roman Empire’s gradual decline and final collapse; indeed, the event was so complex that Edward Gibbon, the famous historian, wrote six long volumes on the topic.  Rome’s collapse, furthermore, was to have a profound impact on the development of medieval Europe.

I do not expect anything as exhaustive as Gibbon’s masterpiece from you, but a detailed page of notes on the possible factors involved in Rome’s decline and the effects of its fall would be more than acceptable to me.

Use the links below to create a concept map of the factors that contributed to this crucial event and its effects on the world of medieval Europe. You may choose to employ my graphic as a starting point or instead use your own note-taking style.

Kind regards,

Ms Green

fall of rome

Questions to ask yourselves as you read:

a Gibbon thought we should ask why the Roman Empire lasted as long as it did, rather than why it fell. This is a whole new way of considering the issue. What do you think?

b What were the possible benefits of Rome’s fall? Is it accurate to assert that its fall ushered in the so-called “Dark Ages”?

c To what extent did the splitting of the Empire into western and eastern parts weaken the west and contribute to its gradual decline?

“The decline of Rome was the natural and inevitable effect of immoderate greatness…” – Edward Gibbon, writer of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Links on the Fall of Rome

Words for describing cause and effect in history:

Cause and effect in History

Print Friendly